Gideon Nave

Gideon Nave
  • Assistant Professor of Marketing

Contact Information

  • office Address:

    749 Jon M. Huntsman Hall
    3730 Walnut Street
    University of Pennsylvania
    Philadelphia, PA 19104-6304

Links: CV

Overview

Technological developments of measurement instruments over the past two decades have granted firms, policy makers and researchers the access to individual-level data of unprecedented granularity and scale. Digital footprints of online behavior provide comprehensive measurements of attitudes toward content, language use and information search. Emerging biomedical innovations such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), genotyping and hormonal assays quantify the building blocks of the biological processes that shape our preferences, cognition and decision-making. Gideon Nave’s research leverages these technological developments for the advancement of efficiency, productivity and innovation. To this end, Nave develops theories and methods that allow businesses and policy makers to focus their efforts in a more targeted fashion, with the premise of better addressing the needs of their customers and delivering the right products, services and messages to the right people, at the right time.

Nave’s research was published in top academic journals such as Science, Proceedings of the National Academy of Science, Management Science, and Journal of Marketing Research.

Nave holds a PhD in Computation & Neural Systems from Caltech. He completed his B.Sc and M.Sc in Electrical Engineering at the Technion – Israel institute of technology, specializing in Signal Processing.

More information is available in Gideon’s personal page and his blog.

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Research

  • Amos Nadler, Colin Camerer, David Zava, Triana L Ortiz, Neil V Watson, Justin M Carre, Gideon Nave (2019), Does testosterone impair men\’s cognitive empathy? Evidence from two large-scale randomized controlled trials, Proceedings of the Royal Society B.

    Abstract: The capacity to infer others' mental states (known as ‘mind reading’ and ‘cognitive empathy’) is essential for social interactions across species, and its impairment characterizes psychopathological conditions such as autism spectrum disorder and schizophrenia. Previous studies reported that testosterone administration impaired cognitive empathy in healthy humans, and that a putative biomarker of prenatal testosterone exposure (finger digit ratios) moderated the effect. However, empirical support for the relationship has relied on small sample studies with mixed evidence. We investigate the reliability and generalizability of the relationship in two large-scale double-blind placebo-controlled experiments in young men (n = 243 and n = 400), using two different testosterone administration protocols. We find no evidence that cognitive empathy is impaired by testosterone administration or associated with digit ratios. With an unprecedented combined sample size, these results counter current theories and previous high-profile reports, and demonstrate that previous investigations of this topic have been statistically underpowered.

  • Uri Barnea, Robert Meyer, Gideon Nave, You Only Get One Shot: Restricting the Number of Times Consumers Can Access Content Increases Their Resource Allocation During Information Processing.

    Abstract: Many social media platforms, including leading apps such as Snapchat, Facebook Messenger and Telegram, limit the number of times audience can view content. We investigate how this restriction affects processing of received information. Building on the notion that people strategically allocate cognitive resources (Schneider and Shiffrin 1977), we propose that receivers increase resource allocation when processing information that they cannot reexamine. In six pre-registered studies (N = 7,048) we demonstrate that restricting people to a single view (vs. multiple views) leads to increased attention, better content recall (both cued and free recall), improved comprehension, and more favorable attitudes towards the content, as well as longer voluntary viewing time, both of the content and of ads preceding it. These results suggest that marketers can affect meaningful metrics by communicating with consumers via channels that limit their repeated access to the message.

  • Gideon Nave, Wi Hoon Jung, Richard Karlsson Linner, Joseph W. Kable, Philipp D Koellinger (2018), Are Bigger Brains Smarter? Evidence From a Large-Scale Preregistered Study, Psychological Science.

    Abstract: A positive relationship between brain volume and intelligence has been suspected since the 19th century, and empirical studies seem to support this hypothesis. However, this claim is controversial because of concerns about publication bias and the lack of systematic control for critical confounding factors (e.g., height, population structure). We conducted a preregistered study of the relationship between brain volume and cognitive performance using a new sample of adults from the United Kingdom that is about 70% larger than the combined samples of all previous investigations on this subject (N = 13,608). Our analyses systematically controlled for sex, age, height, socioeconomic status, and population structure, and our analyses were free of publication bias. We found a robust association between total brain volume and fluid intelligence (r = .19), which is consistent with previous findings in the literature after controlling for measurement quality of intelligence in our data. We also found a positive relationship between total brain volume and educational attainment (r = .12). These relationships were mainly driven by gray matter (rather than white matter or fluid volume), and effect sizes were similar for both sexes and across age groups.

  • Colin Camerer, Anna Dreber, Felix Holzmeister, Teck H. Ho, Jurgen Huber, Magnus Johannesson, Michael Kirchler, Gideon Nave, Brian Nosek, Thomas Pfeiffer (2018), Evaluating the replicability of social science experiments in Nature and Science between 2010 and 2015, Nature Human Behaviour.

    Abstract: Being able to replicate scientific findings is crucial for scientific progress. We replicate 21 systematically selected experimental studies in the social sciences published in Nature and Science between 2010 and 2015. The replications follow analysis plans reviewed by the original authors and pre-registered prior to the replications. The replications are high powered, with sample sizes on average about five times higher than in the original studies. We find a significant effect in the same direction as the original study for 13 (62%) studies, and the effect size of the replications is on average about 50% of the original effect size. Replicability varies between 12 (57%) and 14 (67%) studies for complementary replicability indicators. Consistent with these results, the estimated true-positive rate is 67% in a Bayesian analysis. The relative effect size of true positives is estimated to be 71%, suggesting that both false positives and inflated effect sizes of true positives contribute to imperfect reproducibility. Furthermore, we find that peer beliefs of replicability are strongly related to replicability, suggesting that the research community could predict which results would replicate and that failures to replicate were not the result of chance alone.

  • Gideon Nave (2018), Single-dose testosterone administration increases men’s preference for status goods, Nature Communications.

    Abstract: In modern human cultures where social hierarchies are ubiquitous, people typically signal their hierarchical position through consumption of positional goods—goods that convey one’s social position, such as luxury products. Building on animal research and early correlational human studies linking the sex steroid hormone testosterone with hierarchical social interactions, we investigate the influence of testosterone on men’s preferences for positional goods. Using a placebo-controlled experiment (N = 243) to measure individuals’ desire for status brands and products, we find that administering testosterone increases men’s preference for status brands, compared to brands of similar perceived quality but lower perceived status. Furthermore, testosterone increases positive attitudes toward positional goods when they are described as status-enhancing, but not when they are described as power-enhancing or high in quality. Our results provide novel causal evidence for the biological roots of men’s preferences for status, bridging decades of animal behavioral studies with contemporary consumer research.

  • Gideon Nave, Juri Minxha, David Greenberg, Michal Kosinski, David Stillwell, Jason Rentfrow (2018), Musical Preferences Predict Personality: Evidence from Active Listening and Facebook Likes, Psychological Science.

    Abstract: Research over the past decade has shown that various personality traits are communicated through musical preferences. One limitation of that research is external validity, as most studies have assessed individual differences in musical preferences using self-reports of music-genre preferences. Are personality traits communicated through behavioral manifestations of musical preferences? We address this question in two large-scale online studies with demographically diverse populations. Study 1 (N=22,252) shows that reactions to unfamiliar musical excerpts predicted individual differences in personality - most notably openness and extraversion - above and beyond demographic characteristics. Moreover, these personality traits were differentially associated with particular music-preference dimensions. The results from Study 2 (N=21,929) replicated and extended these findings by showing that an active measure of naturally-occurring behavior, Facebook Likes for musical artists, also predicted individual differences in personality. In general, our findings establish the robustness and external validity of the links between musical preferences and personality.

  • Colin Camerer, Gideon Nave, Alec Smith (2018), Dynamic unstructured bargaining with private information: theory, experiment, and outcome prediction via machine learning, Management Science.

    Abstract: We study dynamic unstructured bargaining with deadlines and one-sided private information about the amount available to share (the “pie size"). Using mechanism design theory, we show that given the players’ incentives, the equilibrium incidence of bargaining failures (“strikes”) should increase with the pie size, and we derive a condition under which strikes are efficient. In our setting, no equilibrium satisfies both equality and efficiency in all pie sizes. We derive two equilibria that resolve the trade-off between equality and efficiency by either favoring equality or favoring efficiency. Using a novel experimental paradigm, we confirm that strike incidence is decreasing in the pie size. Subjects reach equal splits in small pie games (in which strikes are efficient), while most payoffs are close to either the efficient or the equal equilibrium prediction, when the pie is large. We employ a machine learning approach to show that bargaining process features recorded early in the game improve out of sample prediction of disagreements at the deadline. The process feature predictions are as accurate as predictions from pie sizes only, and adding process and pie data together improves predictions even more.

  • Sandra Matz, Michal Kosinski, Gideon Nave, David Stillwell (2017), Psychological targeting as an effective approach to digital mass persuasion, Proceedings of the National Academy of Science.

    Abstract: People are exposed to persuasive communication across many different contexts: Governments, companies, and political parties use persuasive appeals to encourage people to eat healthier, purchase a particular product, or vote for a specific candidate. Laboratory studies show that such persuasive appeals are more effective in influencing behavior when they are tailored to individuals’ unique psychological characteristics. However, the investigation of large-scale psychological persuasion in the real world has been hindered by the questionnaire-based nature of psychological assessment. Recent research, however, shows that people’s psychological characteristics can be accurately predicted from their digital footprints, such as their Facebook Likes or Tweets. Capitalizing on this form of psychological assessment from digital footprints, we test the effects of psychological persuasion on people’s actual behavior in an ecologically valid setting. In three field experiments that reached over 3.5 million individuals with psychologically tailored advertising, we find that matching the content of persuasive appeals to individuals’ psychological characteristics significantly altered their behavior as measured by clicks and purchases. Persuasive appeals that were matched to people’s extraversion or openness-to-experience level resulted in up to 40% more clicks and up to 50% more purchases than their mismatching or unpersonalized counterparts. Our findings suggest that the application of psychological targeting makes it possible to influence the behavior of large groups of people by tailoring persuasive appeals to the psychological needs of the target audiences. We discuss both the potential benefits of this method for helping individuals make better decisions and the potential pitfalls related to manipulation and privacy.

  • Gideon Nave, Amos Nadler, Colin Camerer, David Zava (2017), Single dose testosterone administration impairs cognitive reflection in men, Psychological Science.

  • Cary Frydman and Gideon Nave (2016), Extrapolative Beliefs in Perceptual and Economic Decisions: Evidence of a Common Mechanism, Management Science.

Teaching

Past Courses

  • MKTG212 - DATA & ANLZ FOR MKTG DEC

    Firms have access to detailed data of customers and past marketing actions. Such data may include in-store and online customer transactions, customer surveys as well as prices and advertising. Using real-world applications from various industries, the goal of the course is to familiarize students with several types of managerial problems as well as data sources and techniques, commonly employed in making effective marketing decisions. The course would involve formulating critical managerial problems, developing relevant hypotheses, analyzing data and, most importantly, drawing inferences and telling convincing narratives, with a view of yielding actionable results.

  • MKTG350 - SPECIAL TOPICS

    CONSUMER NEUROSCIENCE: How can studying the brain improve our understanding of consumer behavior? While neuroscience made tremendous strides throughout the 20th century, rarely were meaningful applications developed outside of medicine. Recently, however, breakthroughs in measurement and computation have accelerated brain science and created a dizzying array of opportunities in business and technology. Currently, applications to marketing research and product development are experiencing explosive growth that has been met with both excitement and skepticism. This mini-course provides an overview of the neuroscience behind and the potential for these developments. Topics will range from well-known and widely used applications, such as eye-tracking measures in the lab and field, to emerging methods and measures, such as mobile technologies, face-reading algorithms, and neural predictors of marketing response. The course will also discuss applications in branding and product development, including wearable physiological devices and apps, sensory branding for foods and fragrances, pharmaceuticals and medical devices, and neuroscience-based products designed to enhance cognitive functions. These applications stem from many subfields of cognitive neuroscience, including attention, emotion, memory, and decision making. This course is self-contained and has no prerequisites. However, students with some background in business, economics, psychology, and/or neuroscience are likely to find the material covered in this course complementary to their existing knowledge.

  • MKTG712 - DATA & ANLZ FOR MKTG DEC

    Firms have access to detailed data of customers and past marketing actions. Such data may include in-store and online customer transactions, customer surveys as well as prices and advertising. Using real-world applications from various industries, the goal of the course is to familiarize students with several types of managerial problems as well as data sources and techniques, commonly employed in making effective marketing decisions. The course would involve formulating critical managerial problems, developing relevant hypotheses, analyzing data and, most importantly, drawing inferences and telling convincing narratives, with a view of yielding actionable results.

  • MKTG850 - SPECIAL TOPICS

    CONSUMER NEUROSCIENCE: How can studying the brain improve our understanding of consumer behavior? While neuroscience made tremendous strides throughout the 20th century, rarely were meaningful applications developed outside of medicine. Recently, however, breakthroughs in measurement and computation have accelerated brain science and created a dizzying array of opportunities in business and technology. Currently, applications to marketing research and product development are experiencing explosive growth that has been met with both excitement and skepticism. This mini-course provides an overview of the neuroscience behind and the potential for these developments. Topics will range from well-known and widely used applications, such as eye-tracking measures in the lab and field, to emerging methods and measures, such as mobile technologies, face-reading algorithms, and neural predictors of marketing response. The course will also discuss applications in branding and product development, including wearable physiological devices and apps, sensory branding for foods and fragrances, pharmaceuticals and medical devices, and neuroscience-based products designed to enhance cognitive functions. These applications stem from many subfields of cognitive neuroscience, including attention, emotion, memory, and decision making. This course is self-contained and has no prerequisites. However, students with some background in business, economics, psychology, and/or neuroscience are likely to find the material covered in this course complementary to their existing knowledge.

In the News

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Latest Research

Amos Nadler, Colin Camerer, David Zava, Triana L Ortiz, Neil V Watson, Justin M Carre, Gideon Nave (2019), Does testosterone impair men\’s cognitive empathy? Evidence from two large-scale randomized controlled trials, Proceedings of the Royal Society B.
All Research

In the News

Is There a Replication Crisis in Research?

A recent study co-led by Wharton's Gideon Nave attempted to replicate social science experiments published in top journals, with mixed results.

Knowledge @ Wharton - 2018/10/12
All News