Jonah Berger

Jonah Berger
  • Associate Professor of Marketing

Contact Information

Research Interests: Word of mouth, social influence, why things catch on, viral marketing, and natural language processing

Links: CV, Personal Website

Overview

For most recent news and research, see  jonahberger.com

New book – The Catalyst: How to Change Anyone’s Mind

Professor Jonah Berger is a world-renowned expert on word of mouth, social influence, consumer behavior, and how products, ideas, and behaviors catch on. He has published dozens of articles in top‐tier academic journals, teaches Wharton’s highest rated online course, and popular accounts of his work often appear in places like The New York Times, Wall Street Journal, and Harvard Business Review. Berger is the internationally bestselling author of multiple books including Contagious: Why Things Catch On (over half a million copies in print in over 30 languages) and Invisible Influence: The Hidden Forces that Shape Behavior. Berger often keynotes major conferences and events like SXSW and Cannes Lions and consults for companies like Apple, Google, GE, Coca‐Cola, Vanguard, 3M, and The Gates Foundation.

His most recent work uses automated textual analysis and natural language processing to pull behavioral insights from text data (e.g., predicting song success from lyrics, movie success from scripts, and customer satisfaction from service calls).  He co-founded the Technology and Behavioral Science Initiative and helps host an interdisciplinary conference on Behavioral Insights from Text.

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Research

  • Jonah Berger and Grant Packard (Under Review), Using Natural Language Processing to Quantify Culture.

  • Grant Packard and Jonah Berger (2020), How Concrete Language Shapes Customer Satisfaction, Journal of Consumer Research.

    Abstract: Marketers and consumers alike wish that sales and service people were more attentive to customer needs.  But beyond broad strategies (e.g., being responsive) or using certain tactics (e.g., apologizing), might there be simpler ways to increase satisfaction and purchase?  We suggest that linguistic concreteness, or the words agents use when speaking to customers, can have an important impact.  Five studies, including text analysis from over 1,000 customer interactions across two companies, demonstrate that using more concrete language when addressing customers increases customer satisfaction, willingness to purchase, and actual expenditures.  This occurs because speaking concretely makes agents seem more involved with the customer’s specific, personal needs. These findings deepen understanding of how language shapes consumer behavior and have important implications for increasing customer satisfaction.

  • Olivier Toubia, Jonah Berger, Jehoshua Eliashberg (Under Review), Quantifying the Shape of Narratives.

  • Henrique Laurino Dos Santos and Jonah Berger (Under Review), Pacing and Audience Response: Using Deep Learning to Analyze Narratives.

  • Grant Packard and Jonah Berger (2020), Thinking of You: How Second Person Pronouns Shape Cultural Success, Psychological Science.

    Abstract: What leads some cultural items to succeed while others fail? Some have argued that one function of narrative arts is to facilitate feelings of social connection. If true, cultural items that activate social ties should be more successful. We test this possibility in the context of second person pronouns (e.g., “you”). Textual analysis of thousands of songs, as well as controlled experiments, demonstrate that cultural items that use more second person pronouns are more successful. Rather than directly addressing the audience, or communicating norms, second person pronouns increase success by encouraging audiences to think of someone in their own lives. These findings shed light on a novel way second person pronouns make meaning, the psychological foundations of culture, and situated factors in language effects.

  • Silvia Bellezza and Jonah Berger (2020), Trickle-Round Signals: When Low Status Is Mixed with High, Journal of Consumer Research.

    Abstract: Trickle-down theories suggest that status symbols and fashion trends originate from the elites and move downward, but some high-end restaurants serve lowbrow food (e.g., potato chips, macaroni and cheese), and some high-status individuals wear downscale clothing (e.g., ripped jeans, duct-taped shoes). Why 10 would high-status actors adopt items traditionally associated with low-status groups? Using a signaling perspective to explain this phenomenon, the authors suggest that elites sometimes adopt items associated with low-status groups as a costly signal to distinguish themselves from middle-status individuals. As a result, signals sometimes trickle round, moving directly from the lower to the upper class, 15 before diffusing to the middle class. Furthermore, consistent with a signaling perspective, the presence of multiple signaling dimensions facilitates this effect, enabling the highs to mix and match high and low signals and differentiate themselves. These findings deepen the understanding of signaling dynamics, support a trickle-round theory of fashion, and shed light on alternative status symbols.

  • Jonah Berger, Ashlee Humphreys, Stephen Ludwig, Wendy Moe, Oded Netzer, David Schweidel (2020), Uniting the Tribes: Using Text for Marketing Insight, Journal of Marketing.

    Abstract: Words are part of almost every marketplace interaction. Online reviews, customer service calls, press releases, marketing communications, and other interactions create a wealth of textual data. But how can marketers best use such data? This article provides an overview of automated textual analysis and details how it can be used to generate marketing insights. We discuss how text reflects qualities of the text producer (and context in which the text was produced) and impacts the audience or text recipient. Next, we discuss how text can be a powerful tool both for prediction and for understanding (i.e., insights). Then, we overview methodologies and metrics used in text analysis, providing a set of guidelines and procedures. Further, we highlight some common metrics and challenges and discuss how researchers can address issues of internal and external validity. Finally, we conclude with a discussion of potential areas for future work. Along the way, we note how textual analysis can unite the tribes of marketing. While most marketing problems are interdisciplinary, the field is often fragmented. By involving skills and ideas from each of the subareas of marketing, text analysis has the potential to help unite the field with a common set of tools and approaches.

  • Jacqueline Rifkin, Kathreine Crain, Jonah Berger (2020), Penny for Your Preferences: Leveraging Self-Expression to Increase Prosocial Giving, Journal of Marketing.

  • Reihane Boghrati and Jonah Berger (Under Review), Quantifying Cultural Change: An Application to Misogyny in Music.

    Abstract: While researchers have long been interested in culture and cultural change, quantification has proven difficult. Many have argued that music is misogynistic, for example, but is that actually true? And have any such biases changed over time? Natural language processing of a quarter of a million songs over 50 years tries to address these questions. While both genders are equally likely to be objects of aggression, subtler machine learning approaches paint a more complex picture. Compared to men, women are less likely to be associated with desirable traits (i.e., competence). While this bias has decreased, it persists. Ancillary analyses suggest that lyrics have become less gendered more broadly (though remain gendered) and that temporal changes may be driven by male artists’ (as female artists were less biased initially). Overall, the results shed light on subtle measures of bias and how natural language processing can provide deeper insight into cultural change.

  • Jonah Berger, Wendy Moe, David Schweidel (Under Review), What Leads to Longer Reads? Psychological Drivers of Reading Online Content.

    Abstract: More and more consumers read content online.  They scan Wall Street Journal articles, catch up on sports, and peruse blogs on tech and celebrity gossip. But what makes one article more engaging than another?  That is, what about certain articles encourage people to keep reading?  Combining natural language processing of a unique dataset of over 825,000 page-reading sessions from over 35,000 articles with an experiment, we examine how textual features (i.e., the words used) shape continued engagement. Results suggest that emotion shapes engagement.  Importantly, however, not all emotion increases reading.  Consistent with research on appraisal and action tendencies, content that evokes anger and anxiety encourage further reading while content which evokes sadness discourages it.  Textual features that should increase processing ease (e.g., concreteness and familiar words) also increase engagement.  Experimental evidence underscores the causal impact of emotion on reading and demonstrates that these effects are driven by emotions impact on uncertainty and arousal.  These findings shed light on psychological drivers of reading and how to design more engaging content

Teaching

Current Courses

  • MKTG611 - Marketing Management

    This course addresses how to design and implement the best combination of marketing efforts to carry out a firm's strategy in its target markets. Specifically, this course seeks to develop the student's (1) understanding of how the firm can benefit by creating and delivering value to its customers, and stakeholders, and (2) skills in applying the analytical concepts and tools of marketing to such decisions as segmentation and targeting, branding, pricing, distribution, and promotion. The course uses lectures and case discussions, case write-ups, student presentations, and a comprehensive final examination to achieve these objectives.

    MKTG611009 ( Syllabus )

    MKTG611011 ( Syllabus )

    MKTG611013 ( Syllabus )

    MKTG611015 ( Syllabus )

Past Courses

  • MKTG211 - CONSUMER BEHAVIOR

    This course is concerned with how and why people behave as consumers. Its goals are to: (1) provide conceptual understanding of consumer behavior, (2) provide experience in the application of buyer behavior concepts to marketing management decisions and social policy decision-making; and (3) to develop analytical capability in using behavioral research.

  • MKTG399 - INDEPENDENT STUDY

  • MKTG611 - MARKETING MANAGEMENT

    This course addresses how to design and implement the best combination of marketing efforts to carry out a firm's strategy in its target markets. Specifically, this course seeks to develop the student's (1) understanding of how the firm can benefit by creating and delivering value to its customers, and stakeholders, and (2) skills in applying the analytical concepts and tools of marketing to such decisions as segmentation and targeting, branding, pricing, distribution, and promotion. The course uses lectures and case discussions, case write-ups, student presentations, and a comprehensive final examination to achieve these objectives.

  • MKTG768 - CONTAGIOUS

    Why do some products catch on and achieve huge popularity while others fail? Why do some behaviors spread like wildfire while others languish? How do certain ideas seem to stick in memory while others disappear the minute you hear them? More broadly, what factors lead to trends, social contagion, and social epidemics? Interactive media, word of mouth, and viral marketing are important issues for companies, brands, and organizations. This course looks at these and other topics as it examines how products, ideas, and behaviors catch on and become popular. Marketers want their product to be popular, organizations want their social change initiative to catch on and entrepreneurs want their ideas to stick. This course will touch on four main aspects: (1) Characteristics of products, ideas, and behaviors that lead them to be successful. (2) Aspects of individual psychology that influence what things are successful. (3) Interpersonal processes, or how interactions between individuals drive success. (4) Social networks, or how patterns of social ties influence success.

  • MKTG899 - INDEPENDENT STUDY

    A student contemplating an independent study project must first find a faculty member who agrees to supervise and approve the student's written proposal as an independent study (MKTG 899). If a student wishes the proposed work to be used to meet the ASP requirement, he/she should then submit the approved proposal to the MBA adviser who will determine if it is an appropriate substitute. Such substitutions will only be approved prior to the beginning of the semester.

  • MKTG952 - INFORMATION PROCESSING A

    The purpose of this seminar is to provide graduate students with a solid foundation for critical thinking and research in psychology and marketing on information processing related topics. Topics of discussion include consumer knowledge (learning, memory and categorization), attitude theory, persuasion, affect and social influence. The course draws from the literature in marketing, psychology and economics. The course will enable students to conceptualize, operationalize, and develop research ideas. Therefore, the focus is on understanding theoretical and methodological approaches to various aspects of consumer behavior, as well as advancing this knowledge by developing testable hypotheses and theoretical perspectives that build on the current knowledge base.

  • MKTG973 - RESEARCH SEM MKTG PART A

    This course is taught collectively by the faculty members from the Marketing Department. It is designed to expose Doctoral students to the cutting-edge research in marketing models in order to help them to define and advance their research interests. This course will offer: in-depth discussions on some important topics in marketing by experts in respective areas; tools, and methodologies required for conducting research in those areas; broad exposure to our faculty members and their proven research styles.

  • MKTG999 - INDEPENDENT STUDY

    Requires written permission of instructor and the department graduate adviser.

Awards and Honors

  • William F. O’Dell Award, Journal of Marketing Research,, 2019
  • Outstanding Reviewer Award, Journal of Consumer Research, 2016
  • Best 2012 Article Finalist, Journal of Consumer Research, 2015
  • Top 30 Leaders in Business, American Management Association, 2015
  • Berry-AMA Book Prize for Best Book in Marketing, 2014
  • Top 5 Most Productive Researchers in Marketing 2009-13, AMA DocSig, 2013
  • Paul Green Award, Journal of Marketing Research, Finalist, 2013
  • Most Creative People in Business, Fast Company, 2013
  • Early Career Award, Association for Consumer Research, 2012
  • Early Career Award, Society for Consumer Psychology, 2012
  • Outstanding Reviewer Award, Journal of Consumer Research, 2011
  • Winner, Iron Professor Competition, The Wharton School, 2011
  • MBA Teaching Commitment and Curricular Innovation Award, 2011
  • MSI – Young Scholars Program, 2011
  • Top 10 Reviewer Award, Journal of Consumer Psychology, 2011
  • JCR Best Paper in 2007 Award, Finalist, 2010

In the News

Knowledge @ Wharton

Activity

Latest Research

Jonah Berger and Grant Packard (Under Review), Using Natural Language Processing to Quantify Culture.
All Research

In the News

The Lobster Mac ‘n’ Cheese Mystery: Why Brands Mix High with Low

From designer street wear to lobster macaroni and cheese, mixing high-end products with low-end elements is a big trend in marketing. New research coauthored by Wharton’s Jonah Berger examines why that’s happening and what it means for brands.

Knowledge @ Wharton - 2020/03/4
All News

Awards and Honors

William F. O’Dell Award, Journal of Marketing Research, 2019
All Awards