For most recent news and research, see jonahberger.com
New book – The Catalyst: How to Change Anyone’s Mind
Professor Jonah Berger is a world-renowned expert on word of mouth, social influence, consumer behavior, and how products, ideas, and behaviors catch on. He has published dozens of articles in top‐tier academic journals, teaches Wharton’s highest rated online course, and popular accounts of his work often appear in places like The New York Times, Wall Street Journal, and Harvard Business Review. Berger is the internationally bestselling author of multiple books including Contagious: Why Things Catch On (over half a million copies in print in over 30 languages) and Invisible Influence: The Hidden Forces that Shape Behavior. Berger often keynotes major conferences and events like SXSW and Cannes Lions and consults for companies like Apple, Google, GE, Coca‐Cola, Vanguard, 3M, and The Gates Foundation.
His most recent work uses automated textual analysis and natural language processing to pull behavioral insights from text data (e.g., predicting song success from lyrics, movie success from scripts, and customer satisfaction from service calls). He co-founded the Technology and Behavioral Science Initiative and helps host an interdisciplinary conference on Behavioral Insights from Text.
Grant Packard and Jonah Berger (2020), How Concrete Language Shapes Customer Satisfaction, Journal of Consumer Research.
Abstract: Marketers and consumers alike wish that sales and service people were more attentive to customer needs. But beyond broad strategies (e.g., being responsive) or using certain tactics (e.g., apologizing), might there be simpler ways to increase satisfaction and purchase? We suggest that linguistic concreteness, or the words agents use when speaking to customers, can have an important impact. Five studies, including text analysis from over 1,000 customer interactions across two companies, demonstrate that using more concrete language when addressing customers increases customer satisfaction, willingness to purchase, and actual expenditures. This occurs because speaking concretely makes agents seem more involved with the customer’s specific, personal needs. These findings deepen understanding of how language shapes consumer behavior and have important implications for increasing customer satisfaction.
Grant Packard and Jonah Berger (2020), Thinking of You: How Second Person Pronouns Shape Cultural Success, Psychological Science.
Abstract: What leads some cultural items to succeed while others fail? Some have argued that one function of narrative arts is to facilitate feelings of social connection. If true, cultural items that activate social ties should be more successful. We test this possibility in the context of second person pronouns (e.g., “you”). Textual analysis of thousands of songs, as well as controlled experiments, demonstrate that cultural items that use more second person pronouns are more successful. Rather than directly addressing the audience, or communicating norms, second person pronouns increase success by encouraging audiences to think of someone in their own lives. These findings shed light on a novel way second person pronouns make meaning, the psychological foundations of culture, and situated factors in language effects.
Reihane Boghrati and Jonah Berger (Under Review), Quantifying Cultural Change: An Application to Misogyny in Music.
Abstract: While researchers have long been interested in culture and cultural change, quantification has proven difficult. Many have argued that music is misogynistic, for example, but is that actually true? And have any such biases changed over time? Natural language processing of a quarter of a million songs over 50 years tries to address these questions. While both genders are equally likely to be objects of aggression, subtler machine learning approaches paint a more complex picture. Compared to men, women are less likely to be associated with desirable traits (i.e., competence). While this bias has decreased, it persists. Ancillary analyses suggest that lyrics have become less gendered more broadly (though remain gendered) and that temporal changes may be driven by male artists’ (as female artists were less biased initially). Overall, the results shed light on subtle measures of bias and how natural language processing can provide deeper insight into cultural change.
Jacqueline Rifkin, Kathreine Crain, Jonah Berger, Penny for Your Preferences: Leveraging Self-Expression to Increase Prosocial Giving.
Jonah Berger, Ashlee Humphreys, Stephen Ludwig, Wendy Moe, Oded Netzer, David Schweidel (2019), Uniting the Tribes: Using Text for Marketing Insight, Journal of Marketing.
Abstract: Words are part of almost every marketplace interaction. Online reviews, customer service calls, press releases, marketing communications, and other interactions create a wealth of textual data. But how can marketers best use such data? This article provides an overview of automated textual analysis and details how it can be used to generate marketing insights. We discuss how text reflects qualities of the text producer (and context in which the text was produced) and impacts the audience or text recipient. Next, we discuss how text can be a powerful tool both for prediction and for understanding (i.e., insights). Then, we overview methodologies and metrics used in text analysis, providing a set of guidelines and procedures. Further, we highlight some common metrics and challenges and discuss how researchers can address issues of internal and external validity. Finally, we conclude with a discussion of potential areas for future work. Along the way, we note how textual analysis can unite the tribes of marketing. While most marketing problems are interdisciplinary, the field is often fragmented. By involving skills and ideas from each of the subareas of marketing, text analysis has the potential to help unite the field with a common set of tools and approaches.
Jonah Berger, Wendy Moe, David Schweidel (Under Review), What Leads to Longer Reads? Psychological Drivers of Reading Online Content.
Abstract: More and more consumers read content online. They scan Wall Street Journal articles, catch up on sports, and peruse blogs on tech and celebrity gossip. But what makes one article more engaging than another? That is, what about certain articles encourage people to keep reading? Combining natural language processing of a unique dataset of over 825,000 page-reading sessions from over 35,000 articles with an experiment, we examine how textual features (i.e., the words used) shape continued engagement. Results suggest that emotion shapes engagement. Importantly, however, not all emotion increases reading. Consistent with research on appraisal and action tendencies, content that evokes anger and anxiety encourage further reading while content which evokes sadness discourages it. Textual features that should increase processing ease (e.g., concreteness and familiar words) also increase engagement. Experimental evidence underscores the causal impact of emotion on reading and demonstrates that these effects are driven by emotions impact on uncertainty and arousal. These findings shed light on psychological drivers of reading and how to design more engaging content
Abstract: Some cultural products (e.g., movies and books) catch on and become popular, but less is known about why certain succeed and others fail. While some have argued that success is unpredictable, we suggest that period-to-period shifts in emotional tone—what we term emotional volatility—plays an important role. Automated sentiment analysis of thousands of movies demonstrates that more emotionally volatile movies are evaluated more positively. This relationship holds controlling for a range of other factors, and, consistent with the notion that emotional volatility makes experiences more stimulating, is stronger in genres where evaluations are more likely to be driven stimulation (i.e., thrillers rather than romance). By manipulating emotional volatility in a follow up experiment, we underscore its causal impact on evaluations, and provide preliminary evidence for the role of stimulation and engagement in driving these effects. Taken together, these results shed light on why things become popular, the time dynamics of emotion, and the psychological foundations of culture more broadly.
Alex Van Zant and Jonah Berger (2019), How The Voice Persuades, Journal of Personality and Social Psychology.
Abstract: Research has examined persuasive language, but relatively little is known about how persuasive people are when they attempt to persuade through paralanguage, or acoustic properties of speech (e.g., pitch and volume). People often detect and react against what communicators say, but might they be persuaded by speakers’ attempts to modulate how they say it? Four experiments support this possibility, demonstrating that communicators engaging in paralinguistic persuasion attempts (i.e., modulating their voice to persuade) naturally use paralinguistic cues that influence perceivers’ attitudes and choice. Rather than being effective because they go undetected, however, the results suggest a subtler possibility. Even when they are detected, paralinguistic attempts succeed because they make communicators seem more confident without undermining their perceived sincerity. Consequently, speakers’ confident vocal demeanor persuades others by serving as a signal that they more strongly endorse the stance they take in their message. Further, we find that paralinguistic approaches to persuasion can be uniquely effective even when linguistic ones are not. A cross-study exploratory analysis and replication experiment reveal that communicators tend to speak louder and vary their volume during paralinguistic persuasion attempts, both of which signal confidence and, in turn, facilitate persuasio
This course is concerned with how and why people behave as consumers. Its goals are to: (1) provide conceptual understanding of consumer behavior, (2) provide experience in the application of buyer behavior concepts to marketing management decisions and social policy decision-making; and (3) to develop analytical capability in using behavioral research.
This course addresses how to design and implement the best combination of marketing efforts to carry out a firm's strategy in its target markets. Specifically, this course seeks to develop the student's (1) understanding of how the firm can benefit by creating and delivering value to its customers, and stakeholders, and (2) skills in applying the analytical concepts and tools of marketing to such decisions as segmentation and targeting, branding, pricing, distribution, and promotion. The course uses lectures and case discussions, case write-ups, student presentations, and a comprehensive final examination to achieve these objectives.
Why do some products catch on and achieve huge popularity while others fail? Why do some behaviors spread like wildfire while others languish? How do certain ideas seem to stick in memory while others disappear the minute you hear them? More broadly, what factors lead to trends, social contagion, and social epidemics? Interactive media, word of mouth, and viral marketing are important issues for companies, brands, and organizations. This course looks at these and other topics as it examines how products, ideas, and behaviors catch on and become popular. Marketers want their product to be popular, organizations want their social change initiative to catch on and entrepreneurs want their ideas to stick. This course will touch on four main aspects: (1) Characteristics of products, ideas, and behaviors that lead them to be successful. (2) Aspects of individual psychology that influence what things are successful. (3) Interpersonal processes, or how interactions between individuals drive success. (4) Social networks, or how patterns of social ties influence success.
A student contemplating an independent study project must first find a faculty member who agrees to supervise and approve the student's written proposal as an independent study (MKTG 899). If a student wishes the proposed work to be used to meet the ASP requirement, he/she should then submit the approved proposal to the MBA adviser who will determine if it is an appropriate substitute. Such substitutions will only be approved prior to the beginning of the semester.
The purpose of this seminar is to provide graduate students with a solid foundation for critical thinking and research in psychology and marketing on information processing related topics. Topics of discussion include consumer knowledge (learning, memory and categorization), attitude theory, persuasion, affect and social influence. The course draws from the literature in marketing, psychology and economics. The course will enable students to conceptualize, operationalize, and develop research ideas. Therefore, the focus is on understanding theoretical and methodological approaches to various aspects of consumer behavior, as well as advancing this knowledge by developing testable hypotheses and theoretical perspectives that build on the current knowledge base.
This course is taught collectively by the faculty members from the Marketing Department. It is designed to expose Doctoral students to the cutting-edge research in marketing models in order to help them to define and advance their research interests. This course will offer: in-depth discussions on some important topics in marketing by experts in respective areas; tools, and methodologies required for conducting research in those areas; broad exposure to our faculty members and their proven research styles.
Requires written permission of instructor and the department graduate adviser.
From designer street wear to lobster macaroni and cheese, mixing high-end products with low-end elements is a big trend in marketing. New research coauthored by Wharton’s Jonah Berger examines why that’s happening and what it means for brands.Knowledge @ Wharton - 2020/03/4